de Laval turbine


de Laval turbine
Turbine Tur"bine, n. [L. turbo, -inis, that which spins or whirls round, whirl.] 1. A water wheel, commonly horizontal, variously constructed, but usually having a series of curved floats or buckets, against which the water acts by its impulse or reaction in flowing either outward from a central chamber, inward from an external casing, or from above downward, etc.; -- also called {turbine wheel}. [1913 Webster]

Note: In some turbines, the water is supplied to the wheel from below, instead of above. Turbines in which the water flows in a direction parallel to the axis are called parallel-flow turbines. [1913 Webster]

2. A type of rotary engine with a set of rotating vanes, diagonally inclined and often curved, attached to a central spindle, and obtaining its motive force from the passage of a fluid, as water, steam, or air, over the vanes. Water turbines are frequently used for generating power at hydroelectric power stations, and steam turbines are used for generating power from coal- or oil-fired electric power stations. Turbines are also found in jet engines, and in some automobile engines.

Note: In the 1913 dictionary, the turbine was further decribed thus: ``There are practically only two distinct kinds, and they are typified in the de Laval and the Parsons and Curtis turbines. The

{de Laval turbine} is an impulse turbine, in which steam impinges upon revolving blades from a flared nozzle. The flare of the nozzle causes expansion of the steam, and hence changes its pressure energy into kinetic energy. An enormous velocity (30,000 revolutions per minute in the 5 H. P. size) is requisite for high efficiency, and the machine has therefore to be geared down to be of practical use. Some recent development of this type include turbines formed of several de Laval elements compounded as in the ordinary expansion engine. The Parsons turbine is an impulse-and-reaction turbine, usually of the axial type. The steam is constrained to pass successively through alternate rows of fixed and moving blades, being expanded down to a condenser pressure of about 1 lb. per square inch absolute. The Curtis turbine is somewhat simpler than the Parsons, and consists of elements each of which has at least two rows of moving blades and one row of stationary. The bucket velocity is lowered by fractional velocity reduction. Both the Parsons and Curtis turbines are suitable for driving dynamos and steamships directly. In efficiency, lightness, and bulk for a given power, they compare favorably with reciprocating engines.'' [Webster 1913 Suppl. +PJC]


The Collaborative International Dictionary of English. 2000.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Turbine — Tur bine, n. [L. turbo, inis, that which spins or whirls round, whirl.] 1. A water wheel, commonly horizontal, variously constructed, but usually having a series of curved floats or buckets, against which the water acts by its impulse or reaction …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • turbine wheel — Turbine Tur bine, n. [L. turbo, inis, that which spins or whirls round, whirl.] 1. A water wheel, commonly horizontal, variously constructed, but usually having a series of curved floats or buckets, against which the water acts by its impulse or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Laval — (izg. lavȁl) DEFINICIJA 1. Carl Gustav Patrick de (1845 1913), švedski inženjer, konstruktor mlaznica važnih za razvoj turbina, za mlazne raketne motore, brzohodne parne turbine 2. Pierre (1883 1945), francuski profašistički političar,… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • turbine — /terr bin, buyn/, n. any of various machines having a rotor, usually with vanes or blades, driven by the pressure, momentum, or reactive thrust of a moving fluid, as steam, water, hot gases, or air, either occurring in the form of free jets or as …   Universalium

  • Laval, Carl Gustaf Patrik de — born May 9, 1845, Blasenborg, Swed. died Feb. 2, 1913, Stockholm Swedish scientist, engineer, and inventor. Laval built his first impulse steam turbine in 1882. Further advances followed, including a reversible turbine for marine use. A Laval… …   Universalium

  • Turbine — A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow. Claude Burdin (1788 1873) coined the term from the Latin turbo , or vortex, during an 1828 engineering competition. Benoit Fourneyron (1802 1867), a student of Claude Burdin,… …   Wikipedia

  • LAVAL — SWEDEN (see also List of Individuals) 8.5.1845 Blåsenborg/S 3.2.1913 Stockholm/S Gustaf de Laval graduated as a mechanical engineer from the University of Uppsala in 1863 and then joined an engineering company as a draftsman, but poor health… …   Hydraulicians in Europe 1800-2000

  • Carl Gustav Patrik de Laval — Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval Laval Turbine im Deutschen Museum, München …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gustaf de Laval — Carl Gustaf Patrik de Laval Laval Turbine im Deutschen Museum, München …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Steam turbine — A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons… …   Wikipedia


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